Created in the Image of God Humanity and Divinity in an Age of EnvironmentalismConservative Judaism, Vol. 44 No. 1 1991

This was my first major article on Judaism and the environment. It has been reprinted in several books:

Judaism and Environmental Ethics: A Reader, edited by Martin D. Yaffe, Lexington Books, Lantham, Maryland, 2001.

Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence, Third Edition, by Susan J. Armstrong and Richard G. Botzler, 2004.

Religion and the Environment: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies, edited by Roger S. Gottlieb (New York: Routledge, 2010)

In this article, I tried to reconcile two critical ideas necessary for a modern Jewish environmentalism:

  1. That all human beings are created in the image of God which gives them certain god-like characteristics and therefore creates a fundamental ethical imperative for interpersonal relationships.
  2. That all life has on some level equal inherent value. In general environmental ethics this is called “bio-centrism.”

I utilized the Gaia Theory as a means to to do this.